Progressive supranuclear palsy is an uncommon brain disorder that causes serious problems with walking, balance and eye movements, and later with swallowing. It is a form of parkinsonism. The disorder results from deterioration of cells in areas of your brain that control body movement, coordination, thinking and other important functions. Progressive supranuclear palsy is also called Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome because the protein tau accumulates which causes degradation of neural networks
Progressive supranuclear palsy worsens over time and can lead to life-threatening complications, such as pneumonia and swallowing problems. There's no cure for progressive supranuclear palsy, so treatment focuses on managing the signs and symptoms.
Frontotemporal dementia is an umbrella term for a group of uncommon brain disorders that primarily affect the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. These areas of the brain are generally associated with personality, behavior and language.
In frontotemporal dementia, portions of these lobes shrink (atrophy). Signs and symptoms vary, depending on which part of the brain is affected. Some people with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia have dramatic changes in their personality and become socially inappropriate, impulsive or emotionally indifferent, while others with language variant lose the ability to use language properly.
Frontotemporal dementia is often misdiagnosed as a psychiatric problem or as Alzheimer's disease. But frontotemporal dementia tends to occur at a younger age than does Alzheimer's disease. Frontotemporal dementia often begins between the ages of 40 and 65. Mutations and alteration in proteins such as progranulin, TDP43, FUS, tau, C9orf72 and others have been identified.
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder that causes brain cells to degenerate and die. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia — a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skills that disrupts a person's ability to function independently.
The early signs of the disease may be forgetting recent events or conversations. As the disease progresses, a person with Alzheimer's disease will develop severe memory impairment and lose the ability to carry out everyday tasks.
Current Alzheimer's disease medications may temporarily improve symptoms or slow the rate of decline. These treatments can sometimes help people with Alzheimer's disease maximize function and maintain independence for a time. Different programs and services can help support people with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers.
Treatments presently improve symptoms but do not alter the course of Alzheimer's disease nor do they alter the disease process in the brain. In advanced stages of the disease, complications from severe loss of brain function — such as dehydration, malnutrition or infection — result in death. Several pathological changes have been identified including the accumulation of amyloid, tau, neuro-inflammation, excitotoxicity, neurochemical breakdown and markers of neurodegeneration.
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